Jonathon Schofield, B.Eng., M.Sc., (Ph.D. Candidate)


Jonathon Schofield graduated with a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering from Lakehead University in 2009. Following graduation he returned to his hometown, Edmonton, where he was employed as a design and safety engineer. In 2011 Jonathon returned to school at the University of Alberta completing his Masters degree in Structural Engineering in 2012. Under the supervision of Dr. Samer Adeeb, his research investigated musculoskeletal biomechanics and orthotic design. In January 2013, under the supervision of Dr. Jason Carey and Dr. Jacqueline Hebert, Jonathon began his PhD in Mechanical Engineering.  Joining the BLINC research lab, his research focuses on providing physiologically relevant sensory feedback from upper extremity prostheses to amputee patients.

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Research Interests:

Kinesthetic Sensory Feedback: Dexterous hand movement is dependent on motor output and sensory feedback. This is significantly altered in those with upper limb amputation as sensations of touch and movement (sensory feedback) are inherently lost with the limb. While operating upper limb prostheses, the absence of sensory feedback impedes use of the device by forcing reliance on vision and increasing the required conscience attention. The goal of my work is to establish a sensory interface for upper limb prostheses capable of providing natural, physiologically relevant movement feedback. This work involves the exploration of non-invasive methods to elicit sensations of movement in a patient’s missing limb, and to map these sensations to prosthetic movement. My interests included analysis of potential feedback methods, feedback system development and design, as well as patient testing.

Upper Limb Prosthetic and Tissue Biomechanics: For those with upper limb amputation, the success of a prosthesis is highly dependent on achieving a proper fit between the patient’s residual limb and the prosthetic socket that surrounds it. Poorly fitting sockets can allow unwanted movement of the prosthesis and may cause pain, discomfort or tissue damage. A well fit socket, will apply loads resulting from prosthetic use to physiologically appropriate areas of the patient’s limb, and will ultimately result in improved comfort and function of the prosthesis. My work aims to comprehensively measure and characterize mechanical determinants of upper limb prosthetic fit. This work includes instrumentation of prosthetic sockets as well as development of numerical models to describe socket and tissue mechanics. Extensions include the design, analysis and validation of novel socket designs for improved comfort and fit. Additionally my work involves the design of upper limb sockets capable of integrating sensory feedback mechanisms.


  •  Schofield JS, Evans KR, Hebert JS, Marasco PD, Carey JP, “The Effect of Biomechanical Variables on Force Sensitive Resistor Error: Implications for Calibration and Improved Accuracy.”, Journal of Biomechanics Volume 49, Issue 5, 21  pp. 786–792, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.01.022
  • Melenka GW, Cheung BKO, Schofield JS, Dawson MR, Carey JP. (2016) Evaluation and prediction of the tensile properties of continuous fiber-reinforced 3D printed structures. Composite Structures. 153(1): 866-875
  • Schofield JS, Dawson MR, Carey JP, Hebert JS, 2014. “Characterizing the effects of amplitude, frequency and limb position on vibration induced movement illusions: Implications in sensory-motor rehabilitation.”, Technology and Health Care 23 (2015) 129-141. DOI: 10.3233/THC-140879. (Schofield 2015 TechHealthCare.pdf)
  • Schofield JS, Evans KR, Carey JP, Hebert JS. (2014). Applications of sensory feedback in motorized upper extremity prosthesis: a review. Expert Reviews of Medical Devices. 11(5): 499-511.
  • Melenka GW, Schofield JS, Dawson, MR, Carey JP, 2014. “Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Material Properties of the MakerBot 3D Desktop Printer.”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 21(5), pp.618 – 627, DOI:
  •  Schofield JS , Parent EC , Lewicke J , Carey JP , El-Rich M , Adeeb S, 2013. “Characterizing asymmetry across the whole sit to stand movement in healthy participants.”, Journal of biomechanics, 46(15) PubMed ID:  24016681
  •  Schofield J , Parent E , Lewicke J , Carey JP , El-Rich M , Adeeb S, 2013 “Leg Dominance May Not be a Predictor of Asymmetry in Peak Joint Moments and Ground Reaction Forces During Sit to Stand Movements.”, Journal of applied biomechanics PubMed ID: 23878268

Photo credit Grace Hamm